Archive for June, 2014

Nous (νοῦς) – “…the highest faculty in man” 5

“The aim is to restore the pre-Fall health of the ‘nous’…” 

St. John of Damascus (8th century) says that the “nous” is the eye of the soul. The essence of the soul is the heart (kardia). The “nous” is that part of the soul that sees things most clearly and so it is important that it be purified of any impediment. When the healthy “nous”, the purest noetic power of the soul, is returned to its rightful place in the heart, it is then again capable of experiencing God’s presence through grace. It is this unification or return of the “nous” to the heart that constitutes the cure of the “nous”.

In “Orthodox Psychotherapy“, Hierotheos (Vlachos) speaks of the Church as a hospital which exists to heal those who are sick with sin. That is, to restore to health the diseased and dissipated “nous”, made sick by the “Fall”.  The first step is to guard and protect the “nous” so that it can realize its origin in the “Image of God”.  Then it can begin to be purified and restored to its intended role of leading the entire human being in “attaining to the likeness of God (cf. Gen. 1:26), or “deification” (theosis).  In order to restore the diseased “nous” to this healthy state, it must first pass through a stage of purification. The church’s therapeutic work takes place in this stage of purification.

The “nous” can only be purified with the help of the Holy Spirit. For this reason, it is imperative that every believer be baptized in the Holy Spirit (cf. St. Symeon the New Theologian) and experience His indwelling presence. Through a regimen of self-discipline called ascesis (borrowed from the Greek word askesis, meaning athletic exercise or training), the “nous” can be purified and eventually healed. This only happens as a result of our active cooperation (synergeía) in this work with the Holy Spirit. The first result of this healing of the “nous” is a state which is called dispassion (apatheia) or a release of the “nous” from the influence and distraction of human passions and emotion. Real theology (i.e., a mystical experience of God) is another result, as are an authentic self-knowledge and an accompanying sense of freedom and joy.

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Nous (νοῦς) – “…the highest faculty in man” 6

“In Illumination, a vision of God is granted to the now-healed “nous”.”

When the “nous” is healed and restored, it is no longer dissipated among all the various senses and distractions of this world but is able instead to retire within itself to attain to a vision of God (theoria). A purified “nous” can be illuminated by grace, seeing the glory of Christ reflected in itself and seeing spiritual things clearly. In Illumination, a vision of God is granted to the now-healed “nous”. This vision of God is of His manifested energy (energeía), not His essence (oúsia), which remains beyond human conception and unknowable.

This is the spiritual development process of the early church: purification (katharsis), followed by illumination (theoria), culminating in deification (theosis). These three stages are the purpose of the mystical life of the church.

The manner of healing the “nous” is outlined by Hierotheos (Vlachos) in “Orthodox Psychotherapy“: First, the guarding of the “nous”; second, the purifying of the “nous”; and third, the returning of the “nous” to the heart through the practice (ascesis) of repentance and noetic contemplative prayer so that the “nous” might finally be illuminated by the “divine light” of God’s grace.

This noetic contemplative prayer is the Primitive Christian Prayer tradition of Jesus, Paul and the early church. This, Hierotheos assures us, is the common experience and teaching of the Church Fathers. They may have sometimes differed from one another as they sought to describe this common experience, but the variations in how they expressed themselves should be seen as just that. The true problem may not even be in their expression but in our interpretation; fragmented, locked into a rational modern worldview, and lacking in spiritual understanding as we are in comparison with them.

In closing this discussion of the “nous”, I return us to the point I made at the beginning of this series. Modern Western culture has virtually deified the rational, reasoning mind and intellect over the past 500 years. So thorough is our fixation and obsession with the rational mind, that any other conception of mind or intellect, such as “nous”, is virtually unknown, even within the church.

It is no wonder that we operate at such a low level of spiritual consciousness. But, now you know about your “nous”, the ‘eye of your soul’.   You also now know about the 2,000 year Christian tradition of the healing of the “nous” and “attaining to the likeness of God”. So, what will you do now that you’ve discovered your “nous”?

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Chrysostom: The church as “a hospital for sinners and not a court of law”

St. John Chrysostom (344/354 – 407) -Born in Antioch into an aristocratic family, John bore witness to God as the ‘friend of humankind’ and to an uncompromising ethic of social service.  Known as ‘golden-mouthed’ (Chrysostom) because of his ability as a speaker and preacher, he became Archbishop of Constantinople in AD 397.  He was deposed in 404 for attempting to reform the higher clergy and for preaching against the luxury and depravity of the court of Roman Emperor Arcadius, which earned him the enmity of empress Eudoxia.  He died in exile in 407.  The principal Liturgy of the Eastern Orthodox Church is named in his honor; The Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom.

Dover Beach

John Chrysostom

“Enter into the church and wash away your sins. For there is a hospital for sinners and not a court of law.”

– John Chrysostom

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Contemplative Primitive Christian Prayer 1

“after the fire a still small voice”.  ~ 1 Kings 19:12

1 Kings 19 talks about Elijah running from a very evil queen Jezebel. God wants to talk with Elijah and Elijah experiences a great wind, an earthquake, and a fire, yet he does not hear the voice of God. He hears it in a “still small voice” or as the Greek Septuagint has it, “φωνὴ αὔρας λεπτῆς”, “a sound minute and poor”.

We can only hear “a sound minute and poor” when we ourselves are quiet, still, and attentive. We need to be calm in spirit, ignoring the endless blather of our own mind, and open to the moment without expectation or judgment. That is contemplation. It is how Jesus spent most of his time “praying”. It is what the early church meant by prayer.

Western Latin Christianity (Roman Catholicism) completely lost their contemplative prayer tradition by the rational argumentation of the Reformation of the 16th century and the rational intellectual revolution of the Enlightenment of 17th century. Protestantism never had a contemplative prayer tradition.

The bad news is that we in the West have no idea how to pray as Jesus prayed. The good news is that the tradition of contemplative prayer is being re-discovered in the West and has always been available in the Eastern Orthodox tradition of “hesychasm” to anyone motivated to quiet themselves and seek it.

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Contemplative Primitive Christian Prayer 2

“Very early in the morning, while it was still dark, Jesus got up, left the house and went off to a solitary place, where he prayed.” ~ Mark 1:35

In my last post, I pointed out that Western Christianity lost its mystic tradition of contemplative prayer about 500 years ago.  Contemplation was the prevailing type of Christian prayer for nearly 1,600 years in the Latin West and it still remains the principal prayer tradition of the Orthodox East.   Today, I want to follow up on that thought and discuss the fact that contemplative prayer was established as the principal type of prayer of Christianity in the very beginning, by Jesus himself.

In the very first Chapter (v. 35) of our oldest Gospel, Mark tells how Jesus habitually prayed; alone in a solitary place without distraction.  In fact, just before teaching the disciples the “Lord’s Prayer” in Matthew 6, Jesus tells them, “whenever you pray, go into your room and shut the door and pray to your Father who is in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you.”(v.6).  In these passages, Jesus also tells his disciple how not to pray: “And whenever you pray, do not be like the hypocrites; for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and at the street corners, so that they may be seen by others” (v.5); and “When you are praying, do not heap up empty phrases as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard because of their many words” (v. 7).  These are not isolated incidents and remarks, but characteristic of Jesus’s prayer life throughout the Gospel accounts of his ministry.  As Luke tells us, “So He Himself often withdrew into the wilderness and prayed.” (v. 5:16).

Clearly, Jesus set Contemplative Prayer as the standard for Christians, what I will call “Primitive Christian Prayer”.  I use the word “primitive” not in the sense of the word that denotes “crude”, “unfinished”, or “simplistic”, but in the sense of  being “primary, original, and pristine”.  Primitive Christian Prayer is the way Jesus prayed.  It was the principal prayer tradition of the early Church.

You have never heard that message preached from a Protestant pulpit (or Catholic, for that matter), have you?

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Contemplative Primitive Christian Prayer 3

“a higher state still” ~ John Cassian, ca. AD 400

In this discussion over the next few posts, I will quote recognized Church Fathers from the early centuries of the Church in order to introduce the Primitive Christian Prayer tradition to a mostly Protestant audience.  The reason for this is simple: it’s a prayer tradition that we Protestants do not have and never had; it had virtually disappeared from the institutional Roman Catholic Church by the time of the Protestant Reformation.

To the modern Roman Catholic and Protestant believer, prayer is usually broken down into five basic types: Blessing and Adoration, Petition, Intercession, Thanksgiving, and Praise (cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church).

John Cassian (c. 350 – c.435) was a Christian mystic who spent 15 years in the Egyptian Desert with the Desert Fathers and Mothers of the 4th century.  Highly educated, he was equally comfortable writing in either Greek or Latin.  He tells us that Primitive Christian Prayer went well past the types we recognize today:

“The various kinds of prayer [petition, promise, intercession, pure praise] are followed by a higher state still… it is the contemplation of God alone, an immeasurable fire of love.  The soul settles in it and sinks into its depths” (Conferences, IX, 18).

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Contemplative Primitive Christian Prayer 4

“Be still, and know that I am God”.  “Jesus said, “God is spirit, and His worshipers must worship in spirit and in truth” ~ John 4:24, Psalm 46:10

In discussing Contemplative or Primitive Christian Prayer, I will frequently quote early Church Fathers, like Evagrius Ponticus (346 – 399).  Evagrius was one of the most important teachers of mysticism of the early Church.  He was a contemporary and friend of the famous Cappadocian Fathers (Sts. Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, and Gregory of Nazianzus) who led the Church through the Christological controversies of the 4th century (AD 300’s).  St. Basil ordained Evagrius as reader and St. Gregory Nazianzen ordained him to the diaconate.  In about AD 383 he, like John Cassian, was drawn to the Egyptian Desert where he became a monk, and was a close associate of the greatest of the Desert Fathers and Mothers, especially Macarius of Egypt.  Evagrius was well trained in ancient philosophy and literature, was articulate and literate at a time when most of his contemplative fellow monks of the desert were illiterate.

Evagrius’s description of contemplative Primitive Christian Prayer makes it clear that he is talking about a foundational prayer life that is much different from what we contemporary Christians think of as prayer.  First of all, it is not verbal and it is not actively projecting wishes or messages of any kind.  In his work, “On Prayer”, Evagrius tells us that, “Prayer is the ascent of the spirit [nous*] to God”… “Prayer is a conversation of the spirit with God.”  Second, contemplative primitive prayer requires a quiet, still soul in order for our spirit to ascend and commune with God.  It means that all thoughts, whether bad thoughts (the “passions”) or good thoughts, must be stilled.  Evagrius tells us that, “You will not be able to pray purely if you are all involved with material affairs and agitated with unremitting concerns. For prayer is the rejection of conceptions…  Seek therefore the disposition that the spirit needs, in order to be able to reach out towards its Lord and to hold converse with him without any intermediary…  Undistracted prayer is the highest intellection of the spirit [nous]…  Try to make your intellect deaf and dumb during prayer; you will then be able to pray”.

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Contemplative Primitive Christian Prayer 5

“then he will see the mind appear similar to sapphire or to the color of the sky.”  Evagrius Ponticus, 4th century

This state of a quieted soul, what Evagrius calls a state of “dispassion” [apatheia] is very difficult to achieve.  Dispassion was difficult enough in the isolation of the 4th century Egyptian desert (it took years of practice to achieve) and it is infinitely more difficult for us in the modern world.  First of all, unlike the people of Evagrius’s time, we are culturally conditioned to respect and use only our rational intellect, which is not the part of us that ascends to the Lord in prayer (see the note on the “nous”, below).  Second, we are also the most over stimulated people in history; if not with the endless chatter of our own self-centered desires and judgments, then certainly with the distractions of the modern world trying to capture our attention moment by moment with dazzling technology.

Again, in “On Prayer”, Evagrius tells us: “The state of prayer is one of dispassion [apatheia], which by virtue of the most intense love [agape] transports to the noetic realm the spirit [nous] that longs for wisdom.  He who wishes to pray truly must not only control his incensive power [“thumos”- irascible faculty, anger] and his desire [epithumia], but must also free himself from every impassioned thought.”  If we wish to reach that state beyond normal prayer, that “higher state” described by John Cassian, Evagrius advises us that,  “If one wishes to see the state (katastasis) of the mind (nous) [referring to the state of contemplation, pure prayer, “gnosis”], let him deprive himself of all representations (noemata), and then he will see the mind appear similar to sapphire or to the color of the sky. But to do that without being passionless (apatheia) is impossible, for one must have the assistance of God who breathes into him the kindred light.”

This is ancient foundational Primitive Christian Prayer to which the early church aspired and practiced.  This is praying like Jesus and Paul prayed.

*The nous is the “image of God” present in the consciousness of every human. It is the highest faculty of the human soul.  The notion of man being created in the “image of God” is a constant throughout Christian theology and spirituality deriving from the creation story of Genesis 1.  Note that the idea of “nous” has been totally lost to the Western world, where it has been completely subsumed by our obsession with the “rational intellect” since the Reformation and Enlightenment.

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Contemplative Primitive Christian Prayer 6

“Let your tongue pronounce no word when you betake yourself to prayer.”  ~ Evagrius Ponticus, 4th century

Contemplative, or Primitive Christian Prayer, sounds wonderful but requires a quieted, still soul; and this state can literally take years to achieve and master.  So, how do we “do” contemplative prayer?  To start us off, I will again use our friend Evagrius Ponticus who tells us that an intellect (read: nous) that is filled with agape love in seeking God, tears itself away from the physical world, its images, its passions, its reasoning, so that all that is left is the perception of gratitude and joy.  This, for Evagrius, is the necessary condition of a person in whom prayer can begin:

“When your intellect [nous], in an ardent love for God, sets itself gradually to transcend, so to speak, created things and rejects all thinking… at the same time filling itself with gratitude and joy, then you may consider yourself approaching the borders of prayer.”  (On Prayer, 62)

The mere fact that it can take years to reach the level of dispassion described by Evagrius should not discourage us from our pursuit of prayer!  So, now that we are duly humbled and in a proper frame of mind, how do we do it?  Pseudo-Macarius, an anonymous ascetic writer from about AD 400, tells us:

“To pray there is no need of gestures, nor cries, nor silence, nor kneeling.  Our prayer that is at once tranquil and fervent ought to be waiting upon God, for God to come and permeate all its approaches, all its ways, all its senses.  Enough of groanings and sobs.  Let us seek in our prayer only the coming of God…  In the same way the soul that seeks God – rather I mean the soul that is sought by God – is no longer anything but gazing.”  (33rd homily)

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Contemplative Primitive Christian Prayer 7

“This disposition is accompanied by interior tears, then by a sort of fullness, eager for silence.” ~ Diadochus of Photike, 5th century


We now turn back to John Cassian (ca. AD 400), who tells us how to pray like the Desert Fathers and Mothers:

“We have to take particular care to follow the Gospel precept that bids us go into our inner room and shut the door to pray to our Father.

This is how to do it.

We are praying in our inner room when we withdraw our heart completely from the clamor of our thoughts and preoccupations, and in a kind of secret dialogue, as between intimate friends, we lay bare our desires before the Lord.

We are praying with our door shut when, without opening our mouth, we call on the One who takes no account of words but considers the heart.

We are praying in secret when we speak to God with the heart alone and with concentration of the soul, and make known our state of mind to him alone, in such a way that even the enemy powers themselves cannot guess their nature.  Such is the reason for the deep silence that it behooves us to keep in prayer…” (Conferences, IX)

Diadochus of Photike from the 5th century (AD 400’s) is one of the principal spiritual authorities of the Orthodox East.  He was one of the first to mention the use of the famous “Jesus Prayer”, which remains one of the primary mystic tools of the Orthodox contemplative tradition of hesychasm (silence, quietude) to this day.  Diadochus describes the presence of the Holy Spirit in contemplative prayer and the need for silence:

“When the Holy Spirit acts in the soul he sings psalms and prays with complete relaxation and sweetness in the secret places of the heart.  This disposition is accompanied by interior tears, then by a sort of fullness, eager for silence.” Gnostic Chapters, 73

The tricky thing about contemplative Primitive Christian Prayer is that if you think you’re doing it right, you clearly aren’t!  By thinking you’re doing it right, by making that judgment, you have made prayer into a dualistic contest, a worthiness exercise.  That makes you guilty of “philautia” (φιλαυτία), self-centeredness, the root of all of the deadly sins and the greatest hindrance to pure prayer, at least according to Evagrius Ponticus!

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